Monday, 26 November 2012

Level 6 Assignment 7 Oral Presentation on Critique/Review

Title & Code of Module                    Communications G30001
Assessment Technique                     Portfolio Of Coursework
Weighing                                             5% (50 divided by 10)
Title                                                     Oral Presentation on Critique/Review

Guidelines: The oral presentation to the candidate’s peers should be based on a written item from the module such as the case study, the critique/review or the specialist report. Use visual aids, and include the opportunity for the candidate to answer questions from the audience. The oral presentation should be recorded on video tape.

Assessment Criteria:
Clarity of speech, tone, inflection, breathing, voice, pace, confidence (15)
Use of language-formal/informal, appropriate to audience (10)
Command of subject, captures and sustains interest (15)
Timing and structure (10)

You have the option on presenting some of your previous work. You can pick
from the case study, critique review or specialist report. It is up to you which one
you pick although I  encourage students to present their work on the case study
because it is fresh and since they put so much work into their
case study, you might as well show off your work, This is at your discretion

Here are some behaviours discussed from presentation coach Doug Jeffries
regarding how to make your presentations more effective.

Youtube Video Killer Presentation Skills

Uploaded by on 23 Oct 2006

Your target market will affect how you pitch the presentation. To appeal to
everyone will diminish the scope of your presentation. Are you dealing with
people who know nothing about what you present? If so, how will you pitch it
accordingly? Are they experts about what you are presenting? How will that
change how you use language? What kind of education does your audience
have? What is the general age group? How will that effect the delivery of your

Youtube Video:
Target Market Research-Identifying your Target Audience

 Uploaded by on 26 Aug 2008

Here are some slides (there is no audio in this clip) showing how to have more of
a command over your presentation Remember to structure your presentation
with an introduction, body and conclusion.

Youtube Video Presentation Structure
Uploaded by on 21 Jul 2009

Timing is essential. Going over or under time shows a lack of preparation and
gives the audience the impression that the presentation was composed at the last
minute. This video  shows a feature on Powerpoint 2007 to rehearse your timings
and to deliver a more effective presentation.

Youtube Video

Rehearse PowerPoint Presentation Timing (HD)

 Uploaded by on 9 Dec 2008

Here is a compilation of some of the best Ted Talks. Look up to see
some of the very best presenters and leaders from various industries 

Youtube Video 

TED Top Ten Best Talks 

 Uploaded by on 3 Oct 2009


What did you think of the presenters who interacted with their audience? 

How will you explain your statistics and facts?

How reliant were the speakers on the slides?

Is there anything you can do to make your presentation a bit different?

Practicing interview skills

Practise interview skills

Presenting your CV can seem a daunting task. It is important not to just run through what is just on the CV, the employer has that already. Now is your chance to shine and give them a fuller picture of your job potential.

Have a look at this video from Brightwater Recruitment where 2 candidates are taken through a presentation class. Is there anything you could learn from the feedback they were given?
Youtube Video Jobs Club Presenting Masterclass
Uploaded by on 2 Dec 2010

Here are 2 videos below from highlighting some of the big mistakes which graduates often make as well as dealing with competency based interviews.

Youtube Video

Graduate Interviews - Biggest Mistakes - Cara Fallon, Ericsson, Jameson, PwC, Fidelity

Uploaded by on 5 Feb 2009

Youtube Video 

Competency Based Interviews - PwC, KPMG,

Uploaded by on 5 Feb 2009

Here are some examples of video CV's by graduates

Zookel Video CV Graduate

Uploaded by on 13 Feb 2009

 Youtube Video 
Short Video Resume
Uploaded by on 11 Jan 2010

Here are some of the top questions being asked in interviews. Put your own style on how you answer them but it is more important than ever to prepare as interviewers want to be able to hire the best people for their job.
Youtube Video Top 36 Interview Questions

Uploaded by on 18 Mar 2010

Most Frequently Asked Interview Questions and Answers 

Uploaded by on 1 Sep 2009

How to Ace an Interview with Your Body Language

Uploaded by on 9 Nov 2010
  • From the questions where you have written down answers in class, prepare to be asked these on Monday
  • Have a print out of your CV
  • Type up what you have learned about the interview process

Sunday, 4 November 2012

Level 6 Assignment 6 Case Study and Oral Skills

Title & Code of Module          Communications G30001
Assessment Technique          Case Study and Oral Skills
Weighing                                  25% (250 divided by 10)
Title                                           Case Study

A case study on information flow within an organization familiar to the learnerThe case study will provide evidence of research and analytical skills, knowledge of communications theory and ability to present information visually. It should be word processed, with graphics/diagrams/charts etc.

Assessment Criteria:
Research skills, notes, sources etc (50)
Analysis of situation, conclusions and recommendations (70)
Knowledge of communications theory, use of terms, key players/factors identified, application theory (60)
Use of graphs/charts/diagrams to explain findings clearly (40)
Presentation, layout, structure, grammar, spelling, punctuation (30)
Youtube Video
Evaluating Web Sites Tutorial
Uploaded by on 20 Oct 2008
Case study analysis

Youtube Video 

Excel 2007 Demo - Create charts 

 Uploaded by on 10 Jun 2007

Communications theory
The word communication means to share, impart or make common. It comes from the Latin
word communicaire. Communication is an active process that is continually changing and
evolving. How well we communicate is often determined by how easily we can share or
impart information or find common ground with other people.

Language changes overtime and someone like Shakespeare may have difficulty understanding “textspeak”. Everytime we speak we put together a selection  of words we may have never used before. 2 people communicating with each other may have no idea where they will end up in conversation.

What Reasons Do We Have to Communicate?
-Personal needs
-Societal needs
-Economy (buying and selling)
-Making sense of the world
-Decision making

Discuss in class examples of the reasons for communication as highlighted above. Can you give a real world example as to why any of the points above are reasons to communicate?
        Have a look at this video made by the Infoasaid project to highlight the importance of two way communication to humanitarian organisation's emergency programs when natural disasters occur.

Communication Is Aid 
Uploaded by on 14 Jul 2011

For  Communication to be Effective:
-Effective communication is about conveying your message to others clearly and minimising
dangers for misinterpretation
Example of how information can be misinterpreted
-Effective communication is also about
receiving information from others, with
minimal distortion

What is the communication process?

The communication process is an important process by which humans communicate with each other.

There are THREE basic elements which are central to the communication process.
1. The audience

2. The Message you want to share

How the audience, message and channel elements factor into the communication process:
The Communication Process

Lets say the person on the left in the diagram above wants to send a message to the person
the right.The man on the left has to decide what language the man on the right will need in
order to understand the message.Also the man on the left has to take into account societal
factors such as the relationship between them and the context of the message These 3
factors of language, relationship with each other as well as the context of the conversation
will influence the tone of their conversation. Next, the appropriate channel needs to be
selected to communicate the message. Typical channels of communication include:
Writing, face-to-face speaking, having a telephone conversation, video-call, email, fax, SMS
or even through instant online messaging providers such as Instant Messenger.The man on
the right may give feedback to the man on the left to further his understanding of the message
and having more clarity regarding the appropriate response. 

The picture below gives another explanation of the communication process.

Here is a video which uses the model of a message sent through a paper aeroplane to demonstrate the communication process:
Youtube Video
Communication Theory

Uploaded by on 4 Dec 2009
Youtube Video

Communication Theory Definitions

Message: The information you want to communicate 
Encoding: The process of transferring info you wish to communicate into a form that can be
sent and decoded at the other end. Encoding is is the process by which information from a
source is converted into symbols to be communicated
Channel: The method used to communicate eg face to face meetings, telephones & video
conferencing, letters, emails, memos, reports
Decoding: the process of transforming information from one format into another, usually
information sent from the sender.
Receiver: Must understand your message and is at the receiving end of the communication
channel. They receive decoded messages or info from the sender. Sometimes, the receiver
has to decode the message themselves
Example of positive feedback

Feedback: is the verbal and nonverbal reaction to a communicated message. Close attention to feedback can give the sender confidence that the message is understood. Feeding back part of the output so as to increase the input is positive feedback; feeding back part of the output in such a way as to partially oppose the input is negative feedback.
Context: the relevant constraints of the communicative situation that influence language use, language variation, and discourse. This may include the surrounding environment or broader culture (corporate culture, international culture). It can be the surroundings, circumstances, environment, background, or settings which determine, specify, or clarify the meaning of the message
A famous still image capturing John McCain which went viral. It significantly damaged his chances of appearing strong in the US 2008 election

In order for the transfer of information to qualify as communication, the recipient must
understand the meaning of the information transferred to them. If the recipient does not
understand the meaning of the information conveyed to them, communication has not taken

How is the communication process being hampered in this clip below from the TV show Fawlty Towers?

Fawlty Towers - Communications Problems
Uploaded by  on Nov 12, 2009

Communication Flows in an Organization/Communication Routes    
All organisations need to use communications to survive, some companies use communication better than others which can help to cut costs and maximise productivity. Others are slow regarding how information flows through the organisation and can be slower to react to sudden changes in the marketplace.
Communication routes within an organisation

In an organization, communication flows in 5 main directions-

A great information source is
Rizwanashraf's website 
The first 4 points are methods of internal communication as they happen within
the organisation

1 Downward Communication
This communication flow is used by the managers
to transmit work-related information to the
employees at lower levels. Employees require this
information for performing their jobs and for
meeting the expectations of their managers

Can you think of any disadvantages of downward communication?

Why Downward communication is used by managers  

  •        Providing feedback on employees performance
  •        Giving job instructions
  •        Providing a complete understanding of the employees job as well as to communicate to them how their job is related to other jobs in the organization.
  •        Communicating the organizations mission and vision to the employees. 
  •        Highlighting areas of attention
Downward communication starts with top management and flows down through
management levels to line workers and non-supervisory personnel.
The major purposes of downward communication are to
advise, inform, direct, instruct, and evaluate employees
and to provide organization members with information
about organizational goals and policies.
Most effective if top managers communicate directly with
their immediate supervisors and that those supervisors
communicate with staff

Problems with Downward Communication 
-Employees can feel confused, not informed or powerless and might fail to carry
out their task
-No room for employee feedback
-Downward communication is likely to be filtered, modified, or halted at each
level as managers decide what should be passed down to their employees.
-Sometimes, managers do not provide employees with the information they need
to carry out their tasks effectively 
-Managers often  withhold information to keep employees dependent on them
2 Upward Communication 
-Upward communication deals with the information flow from the bottom up,
from the subordinates to the superiors
-Upward communication is a response to the downward communication
A disadvantage of downward communication was the lack of feedback. Upward
communication gives the employee a chance to comment or constructively
criticise senior management's policies by reporting to their department
managers, who in turn, report to the senior manager.
You can see how the communication process described earlier is becoming more
relevant here as shown below
How do you think the communication process is used in upward communication?

Upward communication enables managers to understand if their messages have
been heard and understood by employees.
Upward communications may include judgments, estimations, propositions
complaints, grievance, appeals, report
Management can then be informed of the progress being made at lower level
or if they have suggestions to better implement management policies and

Advantages of Upward Communication
Employee morale is boosted
Communication is more efficient
Improvements can be made in the managerial decision making process
Greater co-ordination through the organisation.
Ideas and proposals are shared to give a greater knowledge of the people in
your organisation
Saves time
Greater co-operation with team members
Helps collectively solve problems and conflicts within the organisation

Disadvantages of Upward Communication
 -Upward communication is likely to be filtered, condensed or altered by
middle managers who see it as part of their job to protect upper
management from nonessential data originating at the lower levels.
-Middle managers may keep information that would reflect unfavourablyon
themfor reaching their managers or claim the idea as their own

3 Lateral Communication  
Communication is lateral (also known as horizontal) when it operates on the
same level. They mat be in different functional levels, but in the hierarchical 
structure of the organisation, they are at the same level eg supervisors from
different departments.

 Information is often co-ordinated between departments at this level.
Advantages of Lateral communication
Tasks accomplished more effectively 
Helps solve problems
Greater teamwork
Helps build goodwill between departments
Improvements in efficiency

 4 Diagonal Communication 

Communication that takes place between a manager and employees of other
workgroups is called diagonal communication. It generally does not appear
on organizational charts. For instance - To design a training module a
training manager interacts with an Operations personnel to enquire about
the way they perform their task.

 5 External Communication
Communication with those outside the company is external communication. 
Suppliers and customers are communicated to by supervisors. For example to
raise capital for the business, the manager may communicate with a bank
Advantages of External Communication
It helps the sales volume of the organisation
Increases positive public relations (PR) with the customer
Operations run more efficiently
Helps profit
Helps achieve the goals of the organisation and increase customer
The Differences between Formal and Informal communication 
Formal Communication is concerned with the hierarchical chain of
command. Communication flows depending on how the organisation has
been formally arranged. eg where there are many departments and no
flexibility in terms of job duties and responsibilities. Formal communication
strictly adheres to the rules, conventions and ceremony of the
organisation.Communication through a rigid channel of command can
obstruct the flow of free communication.It is often considered to be time
consuming and can lead to a lot of distortion.
Methods of formal communication include:
Department meetings
Telephone calls
Company news bulletins
Special purpose publications and interviews

Informal Communication is often known as the grapevine. This style of
communication does not follow traditional authority lines like you would
with formal communication.Informal communication occurs according to the
needs of individuals. Often, this communication is oral.

When one person has some information of interest, they pass it along informally to a group
A disadvantage of informal communication is that the information may be
based on rumour and therefore it may not be precise. This could harm
and not help the organisation. Fixing the flow of communication after
something has gone wrong is more difficult as it will be unclear where the
responsibility for the communication originated from.

However, for the efficient working of any organisation
both formal and informal communications are required
It is how we make sense of the world by how we see and perceive it
It is the way how we select, organise and interpret info through our senses of
sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch
Our senses are not always 100% reliable, sometimes we may filter out
unnecessary info
Perceived Information is then integrated and analysed before a decision is
Our perception is often our reality. Sometimes this can mean that we don't
always see what is really there as our perceptions are often formed through
our experience of life as shown in the diagram below
Perceptions in Advertising
Do companies try to manipulate our perceptions to purchase their product or
Marlboro Man
Anti smoking ad
Hunky Dorys campaign to sponsor Irish Rugby

 Youtube Video

Guinness Quarrel

Uploaded by on 14 Feb 2007

Youtube Video

I still have a soul (HBO Boxing) 

Uploaded by on 12 Sep 2010
Youtube Video  

Dove - Evolution Commercial (higher quality)

Uploaded by on 15 Oct 2006

Youtube Video Mac Ad - Think Different - Apple

Uploaded by on 26 Apr 2006

Nike ad featuring footballer Wayne Rooney
Benetton have reguarly been deliberately controversial with their ads. Why do you think they do this?

     How do you feel about the product after you have seen the advert?
     Has your perception about the company changed in any way?

People Perception
-People perception is based on only a fraction of a whole person (like we can
only see 10% of an iceberg) and can be problematic.
-Stereotyping intentionally or unintentionally can lead to unfortunately to
obstacles towards communication

-Assumptions and categorisation and judgements can be made on perception (eg 
who to advertise to)
-How we perceive people on their appearance or role is matched to our own
expectations and experience
-The process of perception can alter what you see
-We perceive people initially through their appearance: size, hair, clothes, skin
etc. Whats the problem with this?

Have alook at the image below. Have you made any 
preconceived judgements about this person already?

Youtube Video
The Sophie Lancaster Story
Uploaded by on 29 Mar 2008

Your perception may make your reality. You can see from the diagram below how 2 different worldviews are formed by how we see various issues

Here is an advert which illustrates the effect of perception we receive from upbringing as children on our worldviews

Youtube Video 
Children See, Children Do 
Uploaded by on 10 Dec 2006

The Columbine high school shootings in the USA in 1999 saw the killing of 12 school students by two fellow classmates. Perceptions about what influenced  them on this murder rampage abounded in the media, with blame attributed to violent computer games, angry music and in particular the musician Marilyn Manson. The allegations turned out to be unfounded. Celebrity documentary maker Michael Moore conducted an interview with Marilyn Manson about his thoughts on the shooting incident. Here is a snippet from that interview so you can see how perception can lead to unneccessary bias:
Youtube Video
Marilyn Manson - Bowling For Columbine 

Uploaded by on 18 Feb 2009

 Do you think you have been stereotyped for being Irish?Has it been positive or negative? Here are some examples below of Irish stereotypes


Youtube Video

Family guy Peter lands in Ireland

Uploaded by on 11 Apr 2011

Youtube Video Simpsons In Ireland
Uploaded by on 1 Mar 2011

 Ask yourself when looking at the following pictures, how your perception is affected?

Non Verbal Communication
-Communication without words
“Actions Speak Louder Than Words.”

It's not always what you say but how you say it which can help deliver the effectiveness of your message
Youtube Video
Body Language at Work by Peter Clayton

Uploaded by on 18 Dec 2008

ΕΎFacial expression

Universal facial expressions signify anger, fear, sadness, joy and disgust. Thus, if you smile frequently you will be perceived as more likable, friendly, warm and approachable. Smiling is often contagious and a person will react favorably
. We have 250,000 facial expressions.

 Your eye-contact can give clear indicators regarding whether you are telling the truth or not.Have a look at these 2 short video clips to see what I mean:
Youtube Video 

Anthony Weiner Scandal: Body Language Similarities to Bill Clinton, Tiger Woods, Elliot Spitzer

Uploaded by on 9 Jun 2011

Body Language Breakdown: Obama on '60 Minutes', Trump, and the Royal Wedding

Uploaded by on 13 May 2011

-Your posture–including the pose, stance and bearing of the way you sit, slouch,
stand, lean, bend, hold and move your body in space affects the way people
perceive you.
 -Mirroring the other person in your posture style, where your left side complements their right side can increase the likelihood of a favourable perception of the communicator.
-Displaying a forward lean or a decrease in a backwards lean also signify
positive sentiment during communication.
Youtube Video

Body Language - Open Posture Vs. Closed Posture 

 Uploaded by on 19 Oct 2009

A gesture is a non-vocal bodily movement intended to express meaning. They 
may be articulated with the hands, arms or body, and also include movements of
the head, face and eyes, such as winking, nodding, or rolling one's eyes.
If you fail to gesture while speaking, you may be perceived as  boring, stiff an

Youtube Video 

Body Language: The Meanings of Hand Gestures 

Uploaded by on 28 Oct 2009

Physical Touch
Touches that can be defined as communication include handshake, holding
hands, kissing (cheek, lips, hand), back slapping, give five, a pat on the shoulder,
and brushing an arm. The meaning conveyed from touch is highly dependent
upon the context of the situation, the relationship between communicators, and
the manner of touch.
Youtube Video 

10 Types of Handshakes 

 Uploaded by on 1 May 2009

1. When you meet someone for the first time, how do you greet him or her?

2. Do you use the same greeting for men as for women?

3. How do you greet a friend of the same sex as yourself?

4. How do you greet a friend of the opposite sex?

5. How do you greet members of your family: children adults old people?

6. Describe three gestures you use frequently and say what they mean.