Saturday, 27 August 2011

Multimedia Communications Unit 1 The characteristics and Functions of Media

What does Multimedia Communication mean?

Multi equals Many
Media equals the medium or channel of media used eg (TV, Radio, internet and newspapers)
Media is a term which includes different types of interactive communication eg (print and broadcasts).
Mass Media is where a channel of communication is sent to large groups of people from diverging backgrounds eg (Sky News, BBC, RTE, The Irish Times)
Niche Media is media communicated to an audience with something in common eg( Irish language channel TG4 or magazines aimed at young people's interests such as Hot Press)
Addressable Media is media which communicates to an identifiable audience (eg groups on Facebook)
Interactive Media is 2 way allowing both customers and companies to send and receive information

Youtube Video: What Is Multimedia?
Uploaded by on 23 Oct 2008

This next clip also explains what multimedia is as well as giving you 4 reasons why multimedia should be used in your web projects.
Youtube Video: What Is Multimedia?
Uploaded by on 27 Aug 2009

What is Communication?
The word communication means to share, impart or make common. It comes from the Latin word communicaire. Communication is an active process that is continually changing and evolving. How well we communicate is often determined by how easily we can share or impart information or find common ground with other people.
 Here is a video highlighting how communication works. The video uses the example of a paper airplane although the same process can be used with other types of media.
Youtube Video Communication Theory
Uploaded by on 4 Dec 2009

Here is a video by http://www.armadillo-creative.com/ detailing how the communication landscape is changing the world we live in today.
Youtube Video An Ever Changing World 
Uploaded by on 29 Jun 2009


Think about wanting to get your message out there. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the following mediums?:
1. Newspapers
2. Magazines
3. TV
4. Radio
5. Direct Mail (e-mail or personalised promotional material)
6. Outdoor Media and Advertising

1. Newspapers Print
There are tabloids and broadsheets newspapers. The content within these newspapers are usually grouped by topic. These papers have national circulation. Ad space is sold per column inch.

Large amounts of information can be packaged in one place although it is expecting a certain literacy level from it's readers.

How Newspapers Make Money Through Advertising
Most of these papers have a classified ads section, which have small space, word only ads. Rarely is there editorial content on the same page as classified ads.
Display ads in newspapers contain more graphics and are usually placed alongside editorial content.
Supplement inserts are preprinted by the advertiser and enclosed in the paper (eg flyers for local political representatives during elections or company promotional material)
Free standing inserts Supplements enclosed in the paper with advertisements for national brands (coupons are sometimes included)
Online Ads are also generating revenue from the company's website

A tabloid newspaper is smaller and more compact than a broadsheet. The term tabloid journalism is closely associated with celebrity gossip, sensationalist stories. It is particuarly popular in the UK.


Max Mosley won a court case in 2008 against the now closed down News Of The World on the grounds that this article was an invasion into his privacy
Do you think this example is heartfelt or do you think the shock headlines are to sell newspapers?
Broadsheets are the largest format of papers with long, vertical pages. They are generally assumed to go into more depth than their tabloid counterparts and are often perceived to be more intellectual in terms of covering a story.

Examples of Irish broadsheet newspapers include:
The Irish Examiner
The Irish Independent (also published in the tabloid format)
The Irish Times
Irish editions of UK newspapers eg The Sunday Times






A criticism of Irish media can be found at the following link:  Irish Media Prefers To Ignore Itself by Angela Long What are your thoughts?

Do you think a newspaper would compromise the story of a company if that company was a big advertiser with that paper? What do you think could be the potential consequences if they did?
What are the benefits of local versus national newspapers?
Who do you think is a tabloid paper's target audience?
Who do you think is a broadsheet paper's target audience?
How do you think this affects how the story is sold to the reader?

2. Magazines Print
Magazines can have differing distribution deadlines. Some are weekly, monthly or quarterly. They often target particular audiences (consumer, business and professional audiences). Often these magazines sell subscriptions as some of these magazines may not be available in every newsagent. Quarter, half, full and double page ads can be purchase.

How Magazines Make Money Through Advertising
Gatefolds are when two or more oversized pages fold out  of a magazine
Example of gatefold ad
Tip-in ads: Pre-printed ads printed on finer paper than the other pages in the magazine
Postcard sized ads or Business Reply Cards are slipped within the pages of the magazine. They may fall out while the magazine is being read or maybe attached to the magazine or stuck into an ad
Pop-up ads open up 3 dimensionally as you open the page
Scent strip ads (perfume, aftershave or air freshener samples)
Online Ads are also generating revenue from the company's website
Examples of Irish magazines include:
Ireland Golf Digest
Irish Wedding Diary
Ireland's Homes Interior's and Living
Hot Press
The Phoenix
Tatler Man
Irish Country Living
Hello Magazine



When reading your favorite magazine, have you ever come across instances where editorial articles have advertisements for relevant products or services within the magazine. Do you think this is deliberate or accidental?
What do you think the advantages are to advertise in magazines?

3. TV Broadcasting
Tv stations make money dependant on the number of people tuning into a particular channel at a particular time.For example advertisements during a popular show may command a higher price to advertise in. Look at the amount of sponsors of TV shows in today's society.The 4 main terrestrial channels at the moment are RTE 1 and 2, TV3 and TG4
How TV Stations Make Money Through Advertising:
Infomercials give demonstrations and testemonials for their product and can last from 5 to 30 minutes. This is usually done at off-peak times due to the cost of running the infomercial coupled with the desire for the channel to deliver compelling content.Infomercials have the benefit of being more direct with the consumer as website addresses, mailing lists and phone numbers are continually put up on the screen.
Interactive TV With shows like X Factor, Big Brother and I'm A Celebrity Get Me Out Of Here, there is now more opportunity for programs to make money by getting the audience to phone in with comments or opinions or to vote. Interactive TV is seeing more of a merger between the internet and TV.
Online Ads are also generating revenue from the company's website

Sky have made their output alot more interactive. As a result, they have a better idea regarding the types of programmes to offer viewers. News channels such as Sky News often ask viewers to contribute to polls or to voice opinions.

Channels such as RTE are also using the internet to allow viewers to catch up with programs as a result of the RTE Player.

Examples of TV Program Sponsorship
Cadburys ad sponsoring Coronation Street

Examples of Infomercials and Interactive TV
Fitness Infomercials
Reality TV voting
Phone in programs
Television station interactive services




Here is a quick compilation video of infomercials:
Youtube video Infomercial TV Advertising - Selling the Benefits 
Uploaded by on 26 Mar 2008

Here are some examples of how TV gives the user a more interactive experience:



What are the advantages and disadvantages of advertising through television?
What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages with interactive TV?
What sense does it make for a company to advertise through infomercials?

Have a look at this advert where a dog promotes the benefits of TV advertising. How is the dog appealing to it's target audience?
Youtube Video Harvey Dog Home - A Dog Sells The Benefits Of TV Advertising Funny 
Uploaded by on 15 Sep 2010


4. Radio Broadcasting
Radio makes money from the amount of people tuned into a particular program at a particular time. Again like TV broadcasting, advertising rates can vary according to off-peak and primetimes. Usually advertising is grouped in blocks.

The audience chooses to listen and radio has the ability to stimulate users imagination. However radio can also be listened to in the background so the listeners attention can easily drift.

How Radio Makes Money Through Advertising
Listeners can be affected by the concept of image transfer, where a familiar jingle on the radio can conjure up images of the same advertiser's TV campaign.
Online Ads are also generating revenue from the company's website
Sponsorship has also become more commonplace regarding popular radio programs


There are 5 national radio channels:
RTE Radio 1RTE 2FM
RTE Lyric FM
RTE Raidío Na Gaeltachta
Newstalk 106 (has a quasi-national FM status and is a local Dublin station)

Today FM is commercial and is run by Denis O'Brien's group Communicorp.
The Independant Local Radio Network is owned by BCI which has 18 commercial stations with licenses for different franchises.
There is also a number of Irish pirate radio stations. There have been complaints about the difficulty to set up a licenced radio station. Growth in religious radio stations as well as pirate radio stations operating near the border (so they can target Northern Ireland) are in existence




What are the advantages and disadvantages of radio advertising?
Do you think advertisers think about the target audience listening to a program?

5. Direct Mail/Internet Advertising
Before you were targeted as a customer group. Now as a result of the information you put up on the internet about yourself, advertisers are targeting you, not simply your target group. Think of the adverts you see on social networking sites. Are they ever relevant to a previous search you had done?
Internet advertising involves:
Banner ads
Sponsors of content
Email ads
Websites

Pop Ups
Example of Banner Ads

What are the advantages and disadvantages of internet marketing?
Are you more empowered or more vunerable as a result of internet marketing?
Have a look at this video from Epipheo Studios about how the internet is changing advertising.
Youtube Video

How the Internet Is Changing Advertising

Uploaded by on 1 Jul 2009


6. Outdoor Advertising and Media
Outdoor media are explicit or subtle adverts we encounter when we leave our home or workplace.

They can involve billboards, cinema and film ads, product placements in movies, ads in elevators and public bathrooms, displays on ATM machines, sidewalk messages and more.They can be printed on banners, posters and spectaculars.

There main types of outdoor advertising and media:
1-Cinema and Video deals with promotional video networks (eg IMC and Xtravision), and satellite networks to distribute commercial messages and programs (eg Youtube and Vimeo)
2-Guerilla Marketing Unconventional methods to reach people in unusual ways (eg look at the KitKat and McDonalds examples below)
3-Product Placement Paid verbal or visual brand awareness through entertainment programs

Youtube Video

Creative Outdoor Billboards - Billboard Advertising Ideas - Jon Fletcher


Uploaded by on 13 Mar 2011
Hunky Dory's controversial billboard campaign as sponsors for Irish Rugby


Here is a tongue in cheek example of product placement from the movie Waynes World.
Youtube Video Waynes World Product Placement Clip 
Uploaded by on 21 Aug 2011

Street advertising by KitKat
McDonalds street advertising
HB advertising on Dublin Bus
Billboards in New York


Here's an ad campaign on a local Halpenny's bus I did for Dromad Hire
What are the advantages and disadvantages of outdoor media and advertising?
What do you think street advertising is trying to achieve?
Do you think product placement works? Can you discuss any examples of it?


Who do you see as the most authoritative trusted source?
1. Newspapers
2. Magazines
3. TV
4. Radio
5. Direct Mail (e-mail or personalised promotional material)
6. Outdoor Media and Advertising
Who do you see as the most influential source?

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